In addition to the regular police force, Saudi Arabia has a secret police, the Mabahith, and "religious" police, the Mutawa. The latter enforces Islamic social and moral norms. Western-based human rights organizations, such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, have criticized the activities of both the Mabahith and the Mutawa, as well as a number of other aspects of human rights in Saudi Arabia. These include the number of executions, the range of offences which are subject to the death penalty, the lack of safeguards for the accused in the criminal justice system, the treatment of homosexuals, the use of torture, the lack of religious freedom, and the highly disadvantaged position of women.
Additionally, Albert Shanker Institute and Freedom House consider that "Saudi Arabia's practices diverge from the concept of the rule of law."